Russia’s New Constitution: What You Need to Know — Hive


18-07-20 07:27:00,

Russia's Constitution: What You Need to Know

by James Corbett
July 18, 2020

Remember way back three lifetimes ago (a.k.a. at the beginning of this year) when I wrote about Russia’s possible regime change?

If you don’t remember (or just need a refresher), Russian President Vladimir Putin kicked off 2020 with some bold moves, using his annual address to the nation’s Federal Assembly to “propose a number of constitutional amendments for discussion.” These “amendments” were not just administrative, either, but touched on some core issues, like forbidding top-level government officials from having foreign residence or citizenship and, infamously, repealing the clause limiting the president to two consecutive terms.

And then, even more spectacularly, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and the entire Russian cabinet resigned after the speech (although Putin’s key cabinet officials were reappointed a week later).

As you can imagine, there was much speculation at the time about what was going on, precisely. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Western pundits’ opinions converged on the idea that this was some sort of ploy by Putin to basically stay in power for the rest of his life (or at least a good chunk of it).

You might also recall that I was less sure of that conclusion, going so far as to state “it seems most likely that Putin will step down as planned in 2024 and the next president will have less power to shape the course of Russian politics single-handedly.”

Well, silly me. Looks like I was wrong. Maybe. You see, the Russian government held a national vote on the proposed constitutional reforms earlier this month and they passed with 77.8% support.

So what do the reforms state, specifically, and how will they impact the Russian Federation going forward?

Well, let’s look at some of the 206 amendments that have just been made to the existing Russian constitution, which represent the fifth set of reforms to the document since it was first adopted in the post-Soviet tumult of 1993.

  • Article 79 and Article 125 have been amended to state that international law and the decisions of international organizations cannot override the Russian constitution.

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Luongo: Russia’s Political Stability Ensured While The West Sinks


08-07-20 07:19:00,

Authored by Tom Luongo via Gold, Goats, ’n Guns blog

Despite what American and European commentators may think, there really is a deep desire among people to vote for their own sovereignty. And that impulse was on full display last week with the announcement of the results of Russia’s public vote to approve the changes to its constitution.

The final tally put the vote at 78% in favor with a 65% voter turnout for the referendum. These are the most sweeping changes to Russia’s constitution since it was ratified back in 1993, which vested the President with immense power.

And while the final package of reforms differed in one important aspect from the original one – allowing for a president to serve more than two ‘consecutive’ terms – the over-arching theme of the changes was to devolve power out of the presidency putting more power in the hands of the elected representatives in the Duma.

The president’s cabinet is to be drawn from the Duma rather than the appointed by the president, while the State Council has been officially added to the constitution which can implement presidential edicts directly to the regions. In effect, there is now a greater balance (and tension) between these various branches of government as the president loses control over appointing his cabinet but strengthens his ability to bypass the elected parliament.

What was clear at the outset of this process was that Putin was trying to prepare his succession while minimizing the potential for another ‘foreign puppet’ to wield the immense power of the Russian presidency, as it was under Boris Yeltsin.

Putin was looking to retire in 2024, at 71, with an eye of maintaining a strong presence in Russian politics by leading the Security Council, which with these reforms has a more direct role in shaping military and diplomatic policy than it did before.

Back in December I did a podcast with Alexander Mercouris of The Duran where we discussed these potential changes in detail (which pre-dates the changes to the president’s term limit) which I think is important to review at this point since the changes are now law.

No matter what political perspective you come from there will be valid criticisms of these changes seeing the potential for abuse,

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‘It’s Just the Flu, It’s All BS’ – Russia’s Top Official COVID Doctor Admits in Bombshell Invu


31-05-20 10:18:00,

“It’s all exaggerated. It’s an acute respiratory disease (i.e. the flu) with minimal mortality. Why has the whole world been destroyed? That I don’t know.”

RI Staff Fri, May 29, 2020 | 410 words 10,077

This post first appeared on Russia Insider

it is difficult to overstate how important this is. This man is the equivalent of Fauci in the US, or perhaps Dr. Deborah Birx. The 1.5 hour long interview below is only in Russian, but if you can understand it, it is well worth watching, because a lot of important information is covered.

The interviewer is Ksenia Sobchak, who is very liberal – think of her as like a Russian Rachel Maddow. Like liberals in the West, she very much wants to believe the COVID situation is much worse than it really is. Myasnikov explains to her in detail why it is in fact very difficult to assign ‘cause of death’ in most cases, because there are usually several, in addition to a lot of other things.

It is a great interview, in which the good doctor finally loses his patience and tells her its not nearly as dangerous as people think, and that the whole world has over-reacted. He also insists that the death numbers in the West are way over-counted. 

He’s right.

This interview is also a great example of the high level of journalism in Russia – this is much more genuine, open, exciting, and authentic than most of what is on mainstream media in the West. Just watch a few seconds of the intro, and you will get the idea.

From the Moscow Times:

Russia’s head of coronavirus information has suggested that global anxiety over the pandemic is misplaced, his latest controversial comment after saying that the infection would kill as many people as it needs to.

Doctor and television presenter Alexander Myasnikov was appointed in April to his new role of informing Russians about coronavirus treatment and prevention methods and to battle “fake news” about Covid-19. After calling the country’s reported low death rate a “Russian miracle,” Myasnikov said last week that “those meant to die will die” from it.

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‘EYE’ in the sky: Russia’s National Guard launches BLIMP to spot Covid-19 lockdown violators… to mixed reviews (VIDEO)


17-05-20 10:00:00,

Russia’s National Guard has added a steampunk vibe to the coronavirus dystopia as it launched a blimp to monitor how the lockdown is being observed in Moscow Region. Not everyone was impressed, though.

Equipped with the OKO (“eye”) surveillance system, the air balloon was deployed to hover several hundred meters above the ground, allowing servicemen to observe an area of around five square kilometers.

The blimp’s prime task is to monitor the park and forest areas during the quarantine. Data gathered by the OKO system is transferred to patrols on the ground in real time, who are then dispatched to disperse or fine the violators.

Far from impressing the isolation-weary Russians, the initiative has received quite mixed reviews on social media. Some found the technology not “advanced” enough, wondering why the force doesn’t pour its funding into shiny new drones instead.

Russians – especially Muscovites – strongly associate blimps with the World War II era, when aerostats were used as air defenses against Luftwaffe sorties. To be fair, the National Guard does have quadcopters in service – it’s just that their battery life is too short, while the blimps can stay up in the sky and keep “watching” much longer.

Also on
Moscow hits lowest daily Covid-19 cases mark since early May, with 3,505 infections recorded

But the prospect of an all-seeing “eye” surveying them from above did not sit well with the locals, many of whom inevitably drew parallels to Big Brother from George Orwell’s ‘1984.’

Some particularly wondered why the forest – the last place where you would expect to get Covid-19 – should be surveyed at all. The Russian authorities however insist they have reasons to survey the parks: more than a thousand people were caught dodging the lockdown regime at picnics and barbecues in and outside the capital during the May Day holiday alone.

Since the start of the coronavirus outbreak, more than 26,000 people were infected and some 262 have died in Moscow Region. This is the second-largest Covid-19 hotspot in Russia after Moscow, where the number of infections could soon surpass 140,000.

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Russia’s Unspoken Relationship With Israel and the Assassination of Maj. Gen. Soleimani – Global Research


06-01-20 11:24:00,

The language employed by President Putin and his government in response to Major General Soleimani‘s assassination is unmistakably less emotional than the eulogies that he gave after the passing of Ariel Sharon, Shimon Peres, and Bush Sr., but this was to be expected since Iran isn’t Russia’ “close ally” like many have falsely claimed whereas the Russian leader has been consistently seeking closer relations with “Israel” and the US since the beginning of the century and thus has an interest in openly mourning the deaths of their former leaders whom he had earlier befriended on a very close personal level.

The world has been polarized over Major General Soleimani’s assassination, with Iran’s enemies spitting on his grave while its friends are mourning his murder. Russia, meanwhile, is characteristically “balancing” between both sides per its 21st-century grand strategy whereby it isn’t expressing any emotional reaction to his killing whatsoever. This surprised many in the Alt-Media Community who have been indoctrinated with the fake news narrative that Russia and Iran are “allies” after their shared struggles in jointly defeating Daesh in Syria, which is why they eagerly expected an emotional eulogy from either President Putin or his officials.

Instead, the Russian response has been strictly factual, much to their disappointment. There are obvious reasons for this, though they’ll be explained later on in this analysis. First, however, it’s important to draw attention to the lofty praise that President Putin sincerely expressed towards Ariel Sharon, Shimon Peres, and Bush Sr. after their passing as reported by the official Kremlin website, which was entirely voluntary on his part since they weren’t sitting heads of state when they met their demise but were treasured friends who he’ll fondly remember for the rest of his life, unlike Maj. Gen. Soleimani.

Tears For “Israel” and America

Here’s what President Putin said after Ariel Sharon’s demise:

The President of Russia highly praised Ariel Sharon’s personal qualities, his activity to uphold the interests of Israel, noting the respect he enjoyed among his compatriots and internationally. Mr Putin stressed that Ariel Sharon will be remembered in Russia as a consistent supporter of friendly relations between Russia and Israel, who made a significant contribution to expanding mutually beneficial cooperation.

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Russia’s Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East: President Putin’s Interview with Arab Media – Global Research


15-10-19 08:17:00,

President Putin gave an extensive interview to Arab media before departing for Saudi Arabia and the UAE, but it’s useful to highlight some of the most relevant parts in case interested observers don’t have the time to watch it in full or skim through the transcript since the Russian leader powerfully refutes the Alt-Media narrative that his country is supposedly “allied” with the Resistance against the GCC and “Israel”.

President Putin’s extensive interview that he gave to Arab media before departing for the Gulf is extremely informative in that it authoritatively reveals the true nature of Russia’s foreign policy towards the region, which debunks many of the Alt-Media Community’s dogmas such as the popular one that Moscow is supposedly “allied” with the Resistance against the GCC and “Israel“. It’s therefore of the utmost importance that as many people became aware of what he said as possible, hence the need to highlight some key parts of his interview in case interested observers don’t have the time to watch it in full or skim through the transcript on the official Kremlin website. What follows is bullet point summaries of the main ideas that the Russian leader was trying to convey, after which relevant quotes are referenced in order to support the above-mentioned claim:

Russia Isn’t A Partisan Player In Regional Affairs, But A “Balancing” Force That Refuses To Take Sides:

“Russia will never be friends with one country against another. We build bilateral relations that rely on positive trends generated by our contacts; we do not build alliances against anyone…we will do everything in our power to create the right conditions for positive change.

Still, Russia Doesn’t Believe That Its Envisaged Role Entails “Mediating” Between Rival Parties:

“The role of mediator is not a rewarding one. I believe that our partners in Iran and Saudi Arabia do not need any mediation. Since we maintain very friendly relations with all the countries in the region, including Iran and the Arab states, such as Saudi Arabia and the UAE, we could certainly help relay some messages between the parties, so they could hear each other’s position. But since I personally know the leaders of these countries,

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Russia’s Middle East Strategy: “Balance” vs. “Betrayal”? – Global Research


24-09-19 06:41:00,

There’s an intense debate raging within the Alternative and Independent media over whether Russia’s contemporary Mideast strategy amounts to “balancing” or “betraying” the Resistance given the Eurasian Great Power’s extremely close military cooperation with “Israel” in Syria.

The Freakish Fusion Of Anti-Zionism and Russophilia

There’s perhaps no political entity more reviled in the Independent Media Community — which refers to the collection of publicly financed non-Western media outlets, independent/self-funded ones, and their community of followers who all reject the Mainstream Media — than “Israel” owing to the strong anti-Zionist sentiment that the vast majority of its members embrace.

Many of them are well-intended folks who are outraged by the injustices that the self-professed “Jewish State” carries out against the occupied Palestinians with impunity, to say nothing of “Israel’s” destabilizing role in the Mideast at large. Their view is that “Israel” is one of the main forces of evil in the world, which by default makes it the enemy of all responsible international actors and their supporters. About the latter, the Alt-Media Community lionizes Russian President Putin as the real leader of the free world because they truly believe that his efforts at actively resisting American Hybrid War aggression in Georgia, Crimea, and Syria make him a modern-day hero who has profoundly altered the course of history for the better.

It’s therefore impossible for them to ever believe that the Russian leader would willingly cooperate with “Israel” on anything whatsoever unless he was secretly playing “5D chess” with the intent to eventually undermine it, but this popular dogma of the Alt-Media is actually nothing more than the freakish fusion of its members’ equally passionate anti-Zionism and Russophilia into a false projection of their own wishful thinking expectations onto Russian foreign policy.

As “politically unpalatable” as it is to the many people who practically worship President Putin as the ultimate force for good in the world, he actually has nothing against “Israel” and is on record praising it far and beyond whatever one might argue that he “has to say” for “diplomatic reasons” as proven by the author’s collection of quotes from the official Kremlin website that was published in May 2018. Not only that,

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Russia’s Proposal For Persian Gulf Peace


17-08-19 09:04:00,

Via The Strategic Culture Foundation,

There is an eminently reasonable and feasible way to avoid conflict in the Persian Gulf, and to secure peace. The principles of multilateralism and international law must be adhered to. It seems almost astounding that one has to appeal for such obvious basic norms.

Fortunately, Russia has presented a roadmap for implementing a security concept in the vital waterway based on the above principles.

Russia’s deputy envoy to the United Nations, Dmitry Polyansky, outlined a possible international coalition to provide security for commercial shipping through the strategically important Persian Gulf. The narrow outlet accounts for up to 30 per cent of all globally shipped oil on a daily basis. Virtually every nation has a stake in the safe passage of tankers. Any disruption would have huge negative consequences for the world economy, impacting all nations.

The Russian proposal, which has been submitted to the UN Security Council, is currently being considered by various parties. Crucially, the security concept put forward by Moscow relies on the participation of the Gulf nations, including Iran. Rather than being led by an outside power, the Russian proposal envisages a region-led effort.

This multilateral arrangement for cooperation between nations is solidly within the principles of the UN Charter and international law. Potentially, it can build trust and positive relations, and thereby reduce the climate of tensions and uncertainty which have intensified over recent months, primarily between the United States and Iran.

Washington has blamed Iran for several sabotage incidents on commercial shipping since June. The Americans have not provided any proof for their claims. Iran, for its part, denies any malfeasance and instead has pointed to “malign conspiracy”aimed at stoking tensions, or worse, precipitate an all-out military confrontation between the US and Iran. Significantly, too, the problem of alleged sabotage and danger to shipping followed the increased deployment of US forces in the region during May, ostensibly to counter anticipated “Iranian aggression”.

One thing for sure is that the US proposal for a naval coalition led by Washington, purportedly to “protect shipping” in the Gulf, is a non-starter. Most nations have rebuffed the American plan. Germany, France and other European Union states have given it a resounding pass.

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Russia’s Top Anchor Shows Map of US Targets Russia Can Now Hit With Impunity


28-02-19 04:31:00,

This post first appeared on Russia Insider

Russia’s top newsman, Dmitry Kiselyov, recently showed a map of potential targets in the US that Russia could strike in the event of nuclear war.

This announcement is an indirect threat to US leaders, as Kiselyov is something of an unofficial government spokesman. He is a close confidant of President Putin and other Kremlin insiders, and his show, Vesti Nedeli is broadcast on the state-owned channel Rossiya-1.

It’s no surprise that Russia’s targets include the Pentagon and the presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland. But Kiselyov did give some other insights into how a nuclear Armageddon could play out.

His comments come in the wake of President Trump’s withdrawal of the US from the long-standing Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty.



Vladimir Putin raised the issue of justice in the final part of his Address to the Federal Assembly, devoting it to security. It was about international justice, meaning that only equal security is fair. And since the United States has decided to unilaterally withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and is going to deploy such missiles in Europe, Putin made it clear what dangers such a step poses for Russia, given that such missiles will be able to reach Moscow within 10-12 minutes.

Vladimir Putin: “This is a very serious threat for us. In this case, we will be forced, I would like to emphasize this, we will be forced to respond with equivalent or asymmetric actions. What does this mean? Russia will be forced to create and deploy weapons that can be used not only against the territories that we are directly threatened from, but also against the territories where the decision-making centers are located for the missile systems threatening us.”

Decision-making centers. This is a fundamentally new step towards justice. Until now, America has been lying low overseas, only putting its allies under retaliatory fire, allies who foolishly agreed to host, for example, medium-ranged missiles launchers. Who are they? For example, Romania. MK-41 units have already been deployed there. Poland agreed as well. Maybe Georgia will do so too. What’s up with Poland? Anyway, Poland will get its bitters if a launch occurs on its territory.

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What the Heck Is Russia’s Central Bank Doing?


21-12-18 09:41:00,

In the US money is way to easy but in Russia it’s way too tight, argues Tom Luongo

  • “I’m all for a cautious central bank that does not inflate massive bubbles but I’m also not for a central bank to do the bidding of a country’s adversaries either by undermining growth with needless austerity.


  • “Nabiullina should stop tinkering with rates to please foreign ratings agencies that will downplay Russia’s fiscal position anyway for political purposes.”  

I continue to wonder who Bank of Russia President Elvira Nabiullina works for.  Seriously.  On Friday, in response to solid growth in Russian economic statistics over the past few months, Nabiullina again raised interest rates 0.25%. 

She still adheres to idiotic IMF-style ‘inflation targeting’ dogma.

Price inflation in Russia finally got off the roughly 2.5% mat in August steadily rising to 3.8% in November.  This prompted Nabiullina​​​​​​​ to raise rates again, stifling growth which itself was stifled by her overly-cautious rate cutting earlier in the cycle.

The recovery in Russia after the Ruble crisis of 2014/15 was exasperated by her holding interest rates too high for too long.  The Russian bond market took way to long to normalize because of this lack of liquidity.

In 2017 and early 2018, every time the Bank of Russia cut rates the Ruble would strengthen, that’s how high demand was for them.  The Russian yield curve was approaching normalcy.

And Nabiullina​​​​​​​ is now, again, undermining it by trying to control price inflation as opposed to letting the market regulate itself.  

The short-term Russian bond market is screaming for some relief and the Bank of Russia won’t accommodate.  Remember, inflation in Russia is running just 3.8%, so we’re talking a positive real yield on overnight money of 4%.  This is not making it easy to liquefy a growing economy.  Real yields of 4% on 3 to 5 year money?  Ok. 

But overnight?   I’m all for a cautious central bank that does not inflate massive bubbles but I’m also not for a central bank to do the bidding of a country’s adversaries either by undermining growth with needless austerity.

Central Bank Fallacies

Inflation targeting is not the role of the central bank,

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Russia’s Nuclear Doctrine Is Being Distorted Once Again

Russia’s Nuclear Doctrine Is Being Distorted Once Again

27-06-18 08:09:00,

Authored by Vladimir Kozin via Oriental Review,

On June 13, 2018, the Washington Post published an original piece by Paul Sonne that describes America’s potential use of the low-yield nuclear warheads that are to be installed on the future US B-61-12 nuclear bombs, as well as on the ballistic missiles carried by the Trident II submarines in the form of W76-2 warheads, in accordance with Washington’s 2018 nuclear doctrine.

The article claims that the introduction of low-yield warheads and the idea of their potential use is being justified by the Pentagon as necessary due to the fact that Russia is allegedly prepared to use similar warheads against NATO countries, based on that nation’s current nuclear doctrine and because a purported strategy of “escalate to de-escalate” has apparently been “approved” by Moscow.

It should be kept in mind that the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, which has sections covering the potential use of nuclear weapons, says nothing about the power of the nuclear weapons that might be utilized, nor is there any mention of warheads with either high or “low” yields in TNT equivalents. Those sections of the official doctrine do not even categorize Russian nuclear weapons into strategic vs. tactical varieties.

Only one term is specified in Russia’s military and strategic posture: “nuclear weapons.” And only two circumstances are listed as a basis for their potential use: the first — only in response to the use of nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction against the Russian Federation and/or its allies; and the second — in the event of aggression against Russia that employs conventional weapons to the point that “the very existence of the state is threatened.” In other words, only reciprocal actions are permitted in either case.

Nor does the Russian nuclear doctrine list the countries or alliances against which nuclear weapons can be used.

It seems odd that the US still does not understand the basic tenets of Russia’s nuclear posture. And it must be said that this is not the first time that Western analysts have taken such an unprofessional approach. This has become especially glaring in the run-up to the next NATO summit,

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Russia’s Putin and Israel’s Netanyahu negotiate about what?

Russia’s Putin and Israel’s Netanyahu negotiate about what?

07-06-18 09:07:00,

Russia’s Putin and Israel’s Netanyahu negotiate . . . about what?

Russia's Putin and Israel's Netanyahu negotiate . . . about what?
Russia’s Putin and Israel’s Netanyahu negotiate . . . about what?

“Russia has friendly relations with Israel, and more than a million Russian Jews emigrated to Israel, but Iran is a strategic ally of Russia.”
Last week major state and corporate news outlets reported that Russian President Vladimir Putin and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had met and agreed on removing Iranian troops from Syria and/or Iran’s border with Syria. Then, on June 3rd, Haaretz and other outlets reported that Israel had, for the first time, participated in a NATO “exercise” near the Russian border. I spoke to Rick Sterling, an investigative journalist specializing in Syria, about what could be behind these reports.
Ann Garrison: I’d like to go through some of these disparate reports about Russia and Israel one by one, but first, what do you think of Israel’s first ever participation in NATO war games near the Russian border?
Rick Sterling: The head of NATO recently confirmed that NATO would NOT get into a war involving Israel because Israel is not a NATO member. But Israel is a “partner,” and in 2014 the US Congress designated Israel as a “major strategic partner.” So I think Israel may be participating in the war maneuvers to demonstrate that it’s a good partner. Of course, Russia sees the NATO military exercises on its border as provocative. They are countering with their own military exercises, so it’s just a continuation in the wrong direction away from peace and mutual acceptance.
AG: OK, now to these reports about negotiations between Russia and Israel. Just before the news that Israel had participated in NATO war games near Russia, Bloomberg News reported that Israel was campaigning to break the alliance between Iran and Russia. What do you think of that?
RS: It’s certainly true that Israel is playing the diplomatic game and trying to drive a wedge between Russia and Iran, but the stories are highly exaggerated. They contain both contradictory information and outright disinformation. Russia has friendly relations with Israel, and more than a million Russian Jews emigrated to Israel. But Iran is a strategic ally of Russia.
AG: On June 2nd, the Times of Israel reported that Israel denies inking a deal with Russia on Iranian withdrawal from Syria.  » Lees verder

Russia’s Lack of Reaction to Israel’s Strikes on Syria Is Disgusting

Russia’s Lack of Reaction to Israel’s Strikes on Syria Is Disgusting

11-05-18 10:20:00,

“There is no doubt in my mind that Netanyahu has just publicly thumbed his nose at Putin and that Putin took it”

There have been major developments this week, all of them bad, including Putin re-nominating Medvedev as his Prime Minister, and Bibi Netanyahu invited to Moscow to the Victory Day Parade in spite of him bombing Syria, a Russian ally, just on the eve of his visit. Once in Moscow, Netanyahu compared Iran to, what else, Nazi Germany. How original and profound indeed! Then he proceeded to order the bombing of Syria for a second time, while still in Moscow. But then, what can we expect from a self-worshiping narcissist who finds it appropriate to serve food to the Japanese Prime Minister in a specially made shoe? The man is clearly batshit crazy (which in no way makes him less evil or dangerous). But it is the Russian reaction which is so totally disgusting: nothing, absolutely nothing. Unlike others, I have clearly said that it is not the Russian responsibility to “protect” Syria (or Iran) from the Israelis. But there is no doubt in my mind that Netanyahu has just publicly thumbed his nose at Putin and that Putin took it. For all my respect for Putin, this time he allowed Netanyahu to treat him just like Trump treated Macron. Except that in the case of Putin, he was so treated in his own capital. That makes it even worse.

[Interestingly, while whining about “Nazi Iran” Netanyahu did say something truly profound and true. He said “an important history lesson: when a murderous ideology emerges, one has to push back against it before it is too late”. That is indeed exactly what most people across the world feel about Israel and its Zionist ideology but, alas, their voice is completely ignored by those who rule over them. So yes, it sure looks to me like it is becoming “too late” and that the consequences for our collective cowardice – most of us are absolutely terrified from speaking the plain truth about our Zionist overlords – will cost us all a terrible price.]

Then, of course, there is Donald Trump pulling out of the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in spite of Iran’s full compliance and in spite of the fact that the US does not have the authority to unilaterally withdraw from this multilateral agreement.

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