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“The Nuremberg Code explicitly rejects the moral argument that the creation of benefits for the many justifies the sacrifices for the few. Every experiment, no matter how important or valuable, requires the express voluntary consent of the individual. The rights of individuals to control their bodies trumps the interests of others.” – Arthur Caplan, Bioethicist, 1992
This quote from bioethicist Caplan is a fine statement for his times, but, 3 decades later, well-informed, (non-corporate-based) scientists and other ethical experts would agree that, today, in 2020, the quote should be amended thusly:
“Today the ‘experimenters’ in 2020, should be identified as the powerful, influential, wealthy, profit-seeking corporate entities that are seeking profits from the sacrifices of those that are uninterested, uninformed, thoroughly propagandized or otherwise ‘enslaved.’”
–Dr. Gary G. Kohls, February 1, 2021
Frequently Asked Questions About Informed Consent
by National Vaccine Information Centre (NVIC)
Informed consent has been the central ethical principle of the practice of modern medicine since the Nuremberg Code was issued by the Nuremberg Tribunal after World War II. Although the Nuremberg Code specifically addressed the human right for human beings to give their voluntary informed consent to participate in scientific experiments, the First Principle of the Nuremberg Code has become an ethical standard for allowing patients to give their voluntary consent to engage in medical interventions that carry a risk of harm.
The first principle of the Nuremberg Code includes the following language:
“The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent, should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, overreaching or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision…..”
This informed consent principle has been embraced by enlightened physicians,