World’s Top Legal Expert on Torture Identifies U.S., UK, & Canadian, Govs., as the World’s Top Torturers


26-05-20 06:51:00,

Eric Zuesse

The U.N.’s Special Rapporteur on Torture, Nils Melzer, has declared that Julian Assange is being tortured in Britain’s super-max Belmarsh Prison, by applying “torture that will not leave physical traces, that will erase the personality of the victim,” and that these methods of torture were first applied by the Nazis at the Dachau concentration camp and subsequently refined through experiments on untold numbers of victims so as to establish mind-control over them. (The Nazis used this in order to convert anti-Nazis into their own agents.) The chief person who oversaw these experiments for the U.S., Canadian, and UK Governments, was Dr. Ewen Cameron, President of the American Psychiatric Association (1952–1953), Canadian Psychiatric Association (1958–1959),[2] American Psychopathological Association (1963),[3] Society of Biological Psychiatry (1965) and World Psychiatric Association (1961–1966). (The 114 page “1973 Amnesty International Report on Torture” didn’t mention Dr. Cameron even once. Neither did their 50-page “Torture in 2014: 30 Years of Broken Promises”. Neither did anything else from Amnesty InternationaI. Nor from Human Rights Watch. Both organizations are allied with — funded by billionaires of — the U.S. regime. It’s down the memory-hole, for Cameron.)

Melzer tweeted on May 8th:

Today one year ago we visited #Assange in prison.

He showed clear signs of prolonged psychological #Torture.

First I was shocked that mature democracies could produce such an accident.

Then I found out it was no accident.

Now, I am scared to find out about our democracies.

In a panel discussion of Stephen Bennett’s documentary, “Eminent Monsters” (see the film’s trailer here), Melzer says (4:40-) “you see states [governments] investing actually billions into developing methods of torture that will not leave physical traces and will actually erase the personality of the victim and working on this for decades, and it’s enormous to see the scale of these programs, and also to know where these actually come from, because the first ones to actually systematically experiment with this were the Nazis in the Dachau concentration camp.” Wikipedia has a comprehensive article on Cameron which even includes description of some of his “MKULTRA Subproject 68” experiments on victims who came into his ‘care’ for “anxiety disorders,” “sexually abused,” etc.,

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World’s largest Ponzi scheme ‘fiat currency & banking’ on way to collapse, CEO of online investment platform tells Keiser Report


07-04-20 02:35:00,

As the global economy is struggling with the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, concerns are growing about the stability of the international monetary system.

RT’s Keiser Report is joined by Simon Dixon, the CEO and co-founder of the online investment platform, to talk about the possibility of new digital currencies from central banks and governments around the world, as the debt-based fiat world disintegrates.

“This is really a global reset in the financial system,” says Dixon, adding that he does not want to sound dramatic.

“People are going to think about their own livelihoods and their own personal situation and conserving cash,” he explains, adding that it will inevitably lead to slowdown in mortgages and “the collapse of the fractional reserve banking system.”

“And then inevitably a bailout which I am forecasting will be the central bank, all the governments creating their own digital currency and essentially allowing banks to go bust without people losing their money by giving them the ability to open a wallet with the Central bank if they had $10,000 in their account,” he says.  

According to the expert, “we are going to see a real attack from central banks on traditional banks as we inevitably experience the ginormous consequences of essentially the world’s largest regulator Ponzi scheme that we’ve seen in our lifetime called fiat currency and banking.”

For more stories on economy & finance visit RT’s business section

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With a Quarter of the World’s Population Under US Sanctions, Countries Appeal to UN to Intervene – Global Research


30-03-20 08:38:00,

The governments of China, Cuba, Iran, Nicaragua, North Korea, Russia, Syria, and Venezuela – all under sanctions from the United States – sent a joint statement to the United Nations Secretary-General, the UN’s High Commissioner on Human Rights and the Director-General of the World Health Organization calling for an end to the unilateral American economic blockade, as they are, “illegal and blatantly violate international law and the charter of the United Nations.” 

The eight countries, representing around one-quarter of humanity, say that Washington’s actions are undermining their response to the COVID–19 pandemic sweeping the planet. “The destructive impact of said measures at the national level, plus their extraterritorial implication, together with the phenomenon of over-compliance and the fear for ‘secondary sanctions,’ hinder the ability of national governments” in procuring even basic medical equipment and supplies, including coronavirus test kits and medicine. It is a “hard if not impossible deed for those countries who are currently facing the application of unilateral coercive measures,” to cope, they conclude.

The letter was shared on Twitter by Joaquin Perez, Venezuela’s Permanent Ambassador to the UN.

Today 🇨🇳,🇨🇺,🇰🇵,🇮🇷,🇳🇮,🇷🇺,🇸🇾,🇻🇪 addressed the #UNSG on the negative impact of sanctions on nat’l efforts to fight COVID19. We cannot allow a zero-sum game in the midst of a pandemic. #SanctionsAreCriminal & must end now! Political calculations cannot get in the way of saving lives!

— Joaquín A. Pérez Ayestarán (@japerezve) March 26, 2020

That U.S. sanctions are “blatant violations of international law,” the letter states, is not in doubt. As the American Special Rapporteur to the UN, Alfred de Zayas, notes, only sanctions expressly verified and imposed collectively by the UN Security Council can be considered legal; any unilateral punishment is, by definition, illegal. De Zayas, a legal scholar, notes that sanctions are tantamount to a “collective punishment” against a population, an explicit violation of multiple articles of the UN Charter, the foundation of international law.

De Zayas traveled to Venezuela last year, describing the U.S. sanctions as akin to a medieval siege and accusing the Trump administration of “crimes against humanity.” The United Nations Human Rights Council formally condemned the U.S., called on all member states to break the sanctions,

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World’s Ultra-Rich Preparing For Market Crash, UBS Warns


12-11-19 01:15:00,

A synchronized global slowdown, with no end in sight, has spooked some of the wealthiest investors around the world, according to a new survey from UBS Wealth Management, seen by Bloomberg. UBS polled wealthy investors, who are preparing for a significant stock market correction by the end of next year. 

In the survey of more than 3,400 high net wealth respondents, 25% said they’ve sold risk assets, such as equities, commodities, and high-yield bonds, and have transitioned into cash. The synchronized global slowdown, coupled with a US-China trade war, were some of the greatest concerns of respondents. 

“The rapidly changing geopolitical environment is the biggest concern for investors around the world,” said Paula Polito, client strategy officer at UBS GWM, in a statement. “They see global interconnectivity and reverberations of change impacting their portfolios more than traditional business fundamentals, a marked change from the past.”

About 80% of the respondents expect volatility to increase through 2020, and 55% believe a market plunge could occur before Q4 2020.

Worse, 60% of respondents expected to raise cash levels in the coming quarters (i.e., sell stocks).

Most respondents said the added caution is due to a possible blowoff top in global equity markets. About 70% of respondents are optimistic through 2030.

“The challenge is that they seem to want to respond” to short-term uncertainty “by really shortening their time horizons and shifting to assets like cash that are safe,” said Michael Crook, a managing director on the investment strategy team. Though with many of these people investing on a time horizon across decades and for future generations, that “seems like a mismatch.”

And while most respondents said they’re preparing for market turbulence in the short term, many should rethink their US outlook for the next decade. Teddy Vallee, CIO of Pervalle Global, shows that the “US is dead money for the next 10 yrs.” 

US is dead money for next 10 yrs. $SPX

— Teddy Vallee (@TeddyVallee) October 28, 2019

Vallee suggests that today’s parabolic up moves in stocks could actually be blowoff tops,

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The silent war for the world’s largest oil reserves |


11-10-19 06:53:00,

A point of view by Karl Bernd Esser.

The drone and cruise missiles attack in Saudi Arabia has temporarily stopped the world’s largest IPO of Saudi oil giant ARAMCO (the world’s largest oil production company). This allows investors and exchange gurus to take a closer look at the situation on the ground. Saudi ARAMCO Managing Director Amin Nasser announced that oil production, which slumped after the attacks, would return to its previous level at the end of the month. The Energy Minister, Prince Abdelaziz bin Salman, said half of the collapsed oil production had already been restored. ARAMCO is currently making a profit of 500 million dollars a day. Oil and gas, as is true for other fossil resources, are not unlimited.

And if the exact data about the (sometime) forthcoming Saudi Arabian Peak Oil (i.e. the point in time from which the oil production can only go downward) is understandably one of the hottest secrets of ARAMCO common sense would lead even a layman to conclude that a foresighted government would do well to provide for the forthcoming phase-out of its own oil and gas production in time. The Saudi oil ministry is also hiding the fact that its nationwide oil and gas production has passed its zenith from the world and is trying to place its oil company ARAMCO on the stock exchange as soon as possible. The depleted Saudi coffers and ARAMCO are delighted by new oil wells. But the dilemma is that these wells are 1.800meters below Yemen and not in their own kingdom.

The Iranian attack on the oil plants in Khurais and Abqaiq came at an critical time. It made it clear to future investors that Saudi Arabia cannot protect its most important oil fields from simple air attacks. Saudi air defence systems date back to the Gulf War of 1991, and neither in the air nor on the ground can the Saudis do without support. Military experts also point out that Saudi Arabia has ground troops that are too weak to defeat the rebels in Yemen. Without American or Israeli aid, Saudi Arabia will therefore have little leverage against its arch-enemy Iran.

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The World’s Most Important Political Prisoner


16-09-19 07:27:00,

Authored by Craig Murray,

We are now just one week away from the end of Julian Assange’s uniquely lengthy imprisonment for bail violation. He will receive parole from the rest of that sentence, but will continued to be imprisoned on remand awaiting his hearing on extradition to the USA – a process which could last several years.

At that point, all the excuses for Assange’s imprisonment which so-called leftists and liberals in the UK have hidden behind will evaporate. There are no charges and no active investigation in Sweden, where the “evidence” disintegrated at the first whiff of critical scrutiny. He is no longer imprisoned for “jumping bail”. The sole reason for his incarceration will be the publishing of the Afghan and Iraq war logs leaked by Chelsea Manning, with their evidence of wrongdoing and multiple war crimes.

In imprisoning Assange for bail violation, the UK was in clear defiance of the judgement of the UN Working Group on arbitrary Detention, which stated

Under international law, pre-trial detention must be only imposed in limited instances. Detention during investigations must be even more limited, especially in the absence of any charge. The Swedish investigations have been closed for over 18 months now, and the only ground remaining for Mr. Assange’s continued deprivation of liberty is a bail violation in the UK, which is, objectively, a minor offense that cannot post facto justify the more than 6 years confinement that he has been subjected to since he sought asylum in the Embassy of Ecuador. Mr. Assange should be able to exercise his right to freedom of movement in an unhindered manner, in accordance with the human rights conventions the UK has ratified,

In repudiating the UNWGAD the UK has undermined an important pillar of international law, and one it had always supported in hundreds of other decisions. The mainstream media has entirely failed to note that the UNWGAD called for the release of Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe – a source of potentially valuable international pressure on Iran which the UK has made worthless by its own refusal to comply with the UN over the Assange case. Iran simply replies “if you do not respect the UNWGAD then why should we?”

It is in fact a key indication of media/government collusion that the British media,

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Busting The Myth Of The World’s Hottest Electric Car Market


03-09-19 09:31:00,

Authored by Nawar Alsaadi via,

Norway has been hailed as a model for electric vehicles adoption with EV sales exceeding 57% of new car sales in June of this year. This accomplishment stands at odds with the rest of the world, where despite substantial subsidies, EV sales have lingered in the low single digits. The reality of Norway’s EV sales success is rooted in the simple fact that Norway has created an extremely distorted car market.

Norway’s cold weather makes the country one of the least suitable markets for electric cars since freezing temperatures tend to reduce an EV range by up to 40%. This fact alone makes Norway a less likely market for wide EV adoption. EVs high price tag, range limitations, slow charging time and limited second market makes them a niche product in many markets, said another way, EVs practical inferiority to internal combustion engine (ICE) cars has discouraged their adoption at a wide scale. To counter EVs inherent inferiority, the Norwegian government has introduced a host of market distorting – stick and carrot – initiatives to force EVs adoption:

EV Carrots:

  • EVs are exempt from VAT and other taxes on car purchases and sales.

  • Parking in public parking spaces is free.

  • EVs can use most toll roads and several ferry connections free of charge.

  • EVs are allowed to use bus and collective traffic lanes.

  • The company car tax is 50 per cent lower on EVs, and the annual motor vehicle tax/road tax is also lower.

  • Battery charging is free at a rapidly growing number of publicly funded charging stations.

ICE Sticks:

(Source: European Climate Initiative) 

As result of the above distortions, ICE cars cost more to purchase in Norway and are up to 75% more expensive to operate.

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World’s First Hemp Plane Will Be Stronger Than Steel And Run On Hemp Biofuel


29-07-19 07:25:00,

By Mandy Froelich / Truth Theory

Traveling by airplane is fast and convenient but it can take a large toll on the environment. For this reason, the Hempearth Group is developing the world’s first plane made from and powered by hemp. The innovation is made almost entirely from the sustainable crop — from the plane walls and seats to the wings and pillows.

The hemp airplane was developed by Hempearth, a Canadian cannabis company and thought leader in hemp-related inventions. The company was founded in 2012 and sells a variety of organic, hemp products. Their inventory includes hemp surfboards, paddle boards, oils, cannabis, and even a hemp fiber body phone.

This innovation is a first in the aviation world. When completed, the hemp plane will be able to transport four lucky passengers and a pilot. It has a 36-foot wingspan and runs on Hempearth Hemp Jet A Bio Fuel.

Why Hemp?

First of all, hemp is one of the healthiest and most versatile plants on the planet. Not only is it, pound for pound, 10 times stronger than steel but it can also bend much farther than metal. As a result, hemp is ideal for aviation technology.

Furthermore, hemp is less toxic than traditional aerospace materials, such as aluminum and fiberglass. The crop is also incredibly eco-friendly. It requires less water to grow than cotton and even puts nutrients back into the soil through a process called phytoremeditation.

Finally, hemp is lighter than traditional aviation materials. As a result, it requires less fuel (in this case, hemp biofuel) to reach a high altitude. Hemp also requires no mining, or carbon fiber. Therefore, it has almost no environmental impact.

In addition to developing the world’s first hemp plane, Hempearth is in the process of developing hemp composites in Montreal. Reportedly, they could replace all fiberglass in aviation and other industries — such as construction.

One of Hempearth’s more notable promises is to never sign or work “with fascist companies that are associated with military, The Rockefellers, The Rothchilds and or the Military Industrial Complex.” This statement alone is applaud-worthy.

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World’s Central Banks End Pact That Limited Selling Of Gold


27-07-19 01:09:00,

In a surprising announcement on Friday morning, the European Central Bank said the 21 signatories of the 4th Central Bank Gold Agreement (CBGA) “no longer see the need for formal agreement” as the market has developed and matured, and as a result the signatories “decided not to renew the Agreement upon its expiry in September 2019.”

For readers unfamiliar, the first CBGA was signed in 1999 to coordinate planned gold sales by the various central banks. When it was introduced, the ECB notes that “the Agreement contributed to balanced conditions in the gold market by providing transparency regarding the intentions of the signatories. It was renewed three times in 2004, 2009 and 2014, gradually moving towards less stringent terms.”

The fourth CBGA, which expires on 26 September 2019, was signed by the ECB, the Nationale Bank van België/Banque Nationale de Belgique, the Deutsche Bundesbank, Eesti Pank, the Central Bank of Ireland, the Bank of Greece, the Banco de España, the Banque de France, the Banca d’Italia, the Central Bank of Cyprus, Latvijas Banka, Lietuvos bankas, the Banque centrale du Luxembourg, the Central Bank of Malta, De Nederlandsche Bank, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, the Banco de Portugal, Banka Slovenije, Národná banka Slovenska, Suomen Pankki – Finlands Bank, Sveriges Riksbank and the Swiss National Bank.

The simplest reason why the agreement is no longer needed, is that whereas central banks used to sell gold in the 1990s and early 2000s, most famously the UK’s sale of 401 tonnes of gold of its total 715 tonne holdings under Gordon Brown, broadly seen as one of the “worst investment decisions of all time“, currently they are buying at an unprecedented pace, and in 2018, central bank gold demand was the highest in the “modern” era, or since Nixon closed the gold window in 1971.

More recent data shows that gold buying by central banks in 2019 has persisted and remains the highest in years, with no central bank buying more than Russia, which after dumping most of its US Treasury holdings in 2018, has continued to aggressively convert its foreign reserves into the precious metal.


As a result of a shift in official institutional sentiment from selling to buying,

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Watch: World’s First Raspberry-Picking Robot Completes Field Tasks


08-06-19 08:22:00,

We have spoken on many occasions about the new wave of investments in automation could stimulate the economy after the next economic reset.

And we have also offered many sobering reminders that robots will likely displace 20% to 25% of current jobs (40 million jobs) by 2030. So, in our search for robots that will take jobs of the bottom 90% of Americans, this week, we have stumbled upon the world’s first raspberry-picking robot.

According to The Guardian, the new robot can pick upwards of 25,000 raspberries per day, outpacing human workers that pick around 15,000 in an eight-hour shift.

University of Plymouth spinout company Fieldwork Robotics is commercializing automation technology that will allow robots to harvest raspberries. With a successful pilot run, the robot could be gearing up to pick other fruits and vegetables.

Check out the world’s first ever raspberry-picking #robot, which has gone on trial in the UK. Developed by Fieldwork Robotics, a spinout from @PlymUni, it uses a robotic arm to pick a raspberry in 10 seconds or less. @guardian #agtech #robotics

— Robot&AIWorld (@RobotAndAIWorld) May 26, 2019

The prototype robot cost $890,000 to develop, can detect ripe fruit with its extensive camera system. Guided by sensors and 3D cameras, it uses picking arms to reach into the bush once the ripe fruit is identified, gently grabs it and plucks it from the bush and drops it into a collection bin.

A farm in West Sussex, a county in the south of England, had successfully tested the robot in August 2018. Researchers from the company collected enough data from the trial that will allow the company to push towards commercialization in 2020.

“We are delighted with the progress Fieldwork is making in developing a raspberry-harvesting robot system,” said Neil Crabb of Frontier IP, a major stakeholder in Fieldwork Robotics. “Completing these field trials is an important milestone in commercializing the technology, and we are looking forward to the next round of tests in the autumn.”

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World’s Most Dangerous Nuclear Weapon Rolls Off Assembly Line


12-02-19 08:15:00,

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Last month, the National Nuclear Security Administration (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission) announced that the first of a new generation of strategic nuclear weapons had rolled off the assembly line at its Pantex nuclear weapons plant in the panhandle of Texas. That warhead, the W76-2, is designed to be fitted to a submarine-launched Trident missile, a weapon with a range of more than 7,500 miles. By September, an undisclosed number of warheads will be delivered to the Navy for deployment.

What makes this particular nuke new is the fact that it carries a far smaller destructive payload than the thermonuclear monsters the Trident has been hosting for decades — not the equivalent of about 100 kilotons of TNT as previously, but of five kilotons. According to Stephen Young of the Union of Concerned Scientists, the W76-2 will yield “only” about one-third of the devastating power of the weapon that the Enola Gay, an American B-29 bomber, dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Yet that very shrinkage of the power to devastate is precisely what makes this nuclear weapon potentially the most dangerous ever manufactured. Fulfilling the Trump administration’s quest for nuclear-war-fighting “flexibility,” it isn’t designed as a deterrent against another country launching its nukes; it’s designed to be used. This is the weapon that could make the previously “unthinkablethinkable.

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There have long been “low-yield” nuclear weapons in the arsenals of the nuclear powers, including ones on cruise missiles,

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America Is One Of The World’s Deadliest Countries For Journalists


23-12-18 09:30:00,

Media group Reporters Without Borders said Tuesday it has observed a terrifying trend in the number of journalists killed and imprisoned worldwide, in 2018.

For the first time, the US is one of the world’s deadliest countries for journalists after six were killed.

The Paris-based group, also known as RSF, said the US ranked sixth on the list for most dangerous countries for journalists, behind Afghanistan, Syria, Mexico, Yemen, and India.

Four journalists, as well as a sales manager, were killed in June when a deranged gunman opened fire at the Annapolis, Maryland offices of the Capital Gazette. Two more reporters, a North Carolina television anchor and cameraman, were killed by a tree while covering a hurricane in May. 

“Non-professional journalists play a fundamental role in the production of news and information in countries with oppressive regimes and countries at war, where it is hard for professional journalists to operate,” RSF said in the report.

The big picture: The group states there is an “unprecedented” level of worldwide hostility against members of the press, than in any other period on record. 

Murder, imprisonment, hostage-taking, and disappearances of journalists all increased on a year-over-year basis.

In total, 80 journalists were killed in 2018, with 49 murdered while 31 were killed in the act of reporting.

While the report blames warzones in Afghanistan for the increased deaths, 45% of those killed were not in conflict regions. 

Three hundred and forty-eight reporters have so far been detained this year and 60 were held hostage.

China leads the world in detentions, with 60 journalists held in state jails. Thirty-one journalists are currently being held in Syria. 

“Violence against journalists has reached unprecedented levels this year, and the situation is now critical,” Christophe Deloire, the group’s secretary general said. “The hatred of journalists that is voiced, and sometimes very openly proclaimed, by unscrupulous politicians, religious leaders and businessmen has tragic consequences on the ground, and has been reflected in this disturbing increase in violations against journalists.”

RSF highlights the case of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, 

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How America Came to Have the World’s Biggest Prison Population

How America Came to Have the World’s Biggest Prison Population

29-09-18 05:59:00,

In this week’s “Scheer Intelligence,” elected Public Defender of San Francisco Jeff Adachi, whose parents were confined in an Arkansas internment camp during World War II, recalls how he knew that his parents were “in jail” for being Japanese-American and describes how that understanding affected his life. “That experience—that they didn’t have a trial, that there was never any Japanese-American who was charged with espionage—really ingrained in me the notion that you have to fight for your rights,” he says. “It’s not something that you can take for granted.”

Adachi kicks off the conversation by discussing the new bail law in California, which was purportedly designed to make the existing system more fair. But he and other initial backers decided to drop their support when California Gov. Jerry Brown and judicial advisers made substantive changes to it.

For Adachi, the old system offered a way to “buy your freedom,” which seems to run counter to the vaunted ideal of liberty and justice for all, especially since, as he puts it, “85 percent of the people who are behind bars are there because they cannot post bail.” He opposes the new bill because, he says, it “gives all the power to the judges” to use preventive detention, which precludes the possibility of posting bail and can result in a person sitting in jail indefinitely, even in misdemeanor cases. That strategy is particularly onerous if the person in question is innocent.

Over the course of his career, Adachi has fought for basic constitutional rights and against police and prosecutorial misconduct. “In the immigration court,” he says, “you don’t have the right to a lawyer, even if you’re a child,” so he’s established an immigration unit in the public defender’s office to provide representation to any immigrant who is detained or in custody, including the undocumented and green-card holders.

The discussion takes a lively turn when Adachi suggests that “America at its best is a place where everyone is welcome … [in which] everyone who wants to be part of this great society is able to do that.”

Catch the full episode below:

Robert Scheer

Editor in Chief

Robert Scheer, editor in chief of Truthdig, has built a reputation for strong social and political writing over his 30 years as a journalist.

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The World’s Largest Migration Is About To Begin

The World’s Largest Migration Is About To Begin

15-02-18 10:24:00,

This Friday, China is going to celebrate its new year, kicking off one of the planet’s great migrations.

Also known as Spring Festival or Lunar New Year, Statista’s Niall McCarthy notes that this the event sees hundreds of millions of people leave their cities in order to visit their families in more rural parts of the country. In fact, practically all of China takes holiday at once, making the new year the biggest human event on earth.

Infographic: The World's Largest Migration Is About To Begin  | Statista

You will find more infographics at Statista

This year, the number traveling to welcome the Year of the Dog will be approximately 385 million, marking a 12 percent increase on 2017 according to China News. 

Comparing China’s largest annual migration with North America’s is a good way to gauge its sheer size.

Thanksgiving 2017 saw 50.9 million travelers negotiate long tailbacks on the interstate and overcrowded airports. Even though Thanksgiving is a major travel event, China’s new year is still seven times bigger, with its massive population making a big difference of course.

Known as “chunyun”, the annual new year migration in China also easily surpasses the world’s biggest pilgrimages in scale with Arba’een and the Hajj not even coming close.

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Visualizing All Of The World’s Borders By Age

Visualizing All Of The World’s Borders By Age

19-01-18 06:23:00,

Defined borders are a relatively new concept in many parts of the world. In fact, as Visual Capitalist’s Nick Routley notes, until the latter half of the 20th century, most of the world was still wide open territory with loosely or completely undefined borders.

On the European continent, however, jurisdiction over territory has been a fact of life for thousands of years. In some cases, they’ve left a paper trail. In other cases, there are more concrete remnants. For example, over 3,000 miles (5,000 km) of simple frontier fortifications – known as limes – marked the edges of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century.

Over time, as territorial jurisdiction changed hands through war, marriage, and other arrangements, the map has been redrawn countless times. The video below demonstrates just how dramatically many of Europe’s dividing lines have shifted (even as recently as the 1990s).

Even today, borders are far from set in stone. Belgium and the Netherlands recently swapped land in order to simplify an overly complex piece of their border along a river. Also, India and Bangladesh worked together to solve a notoriously complicated situation involving enclaves within enclaves.


Creating a map that shows the age of all the world’s borders seems like an impossible feat, but Reddit user, PisseGuri82, was up to the challenge. PisseGuri82, acknowledging the extreme complexity of the undertaking, outlined some caveats to consider:

– The map looks at the date a border was officially set to its current form (excluding minute changes).

– The dates are derived from publicly available border treaties and documents.

– Exact dates are difficult to pin down as ratification, surveying, and physical marking can take place over a number of years.

These issues aside, the final product is a fascinating look at how we’ve divided the world up into nations.

Courtesy of: Visual Capitalist

Here are some highlights from the map:

Static Spain

In contrast to the patchwork of territories left in the wake of the Holy Roman Empire,

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